All posts by funnelljazz

Herbie Hancock on Infant Eyes

The excerpt above is a transcription of Herbie’s short solo on the A section, right before Wayne Shorter states two thirds of the closing melody on the bridge (B) going into the final A and coda. The inspired introduction is another spot in this version where the piano is featured. Listen closely to the form throughout: A (9 measures), B (9 measures), A (9 measures). That’s three sections of nine measures each. Cool and unusual! Given his obsession with 3, 6, and 9 (numbers often seen as representing the non-physical realm), I’m guessing “Infant Eyes” is certainly a tune Nikola Tesla would have thoroughly enjoyed…

References

Shorter, Wayne. Speak no Evil. Blue Note/Decca 744042. 2021 (originally released in 1966, recorded 1964).


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arpeggiating altered chords

Piano being a polyphonic instrument, pianists naturally have access to playing several notes on the keyboard at once, which is definitely an advantage when trying to develop harmonic consciousness. Guitarists also have a fretboard suited to playing and hearing both simple and complex chords, and vibraphonists, with two pairs of sticks, are often seen playing four notes at once — a perfect number if you’re focusing on chord tones only! But what about you melodic instrumentalists out there? How does a flute player, a trumpet player, or a double bass player go about hearing a tune’s harmonic framework?

Having taught a few people who play such melodic instruments (as opposed to pianists which typically make up the bulk of my students), I have found that going through a tune arpeggiating its chords is a worthwhile exercise. It gives the player a deeper awareness of the changes, which later enables him or her to be more connected to the tune when improvising (and when playing/embellishing the melody).

Arpeggiating is easily achieved for most chords: play the chord tones first (root, third, fifth, and seventh) then move up to the tensions (ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth)¹. Once you’ve reached the top, just make your way back down from the thirteenth to the root. That works really well for major and minor chords with ninths, elevenths, and thirteenths, and also for most dominant chords with tensions. But altered chords (a specific kind of dominant chord) can be a bit of a challenge because of the inner workings of the altered mode: it indeed appears to have two ninths (one flat and one sharp), and can be apprehended as having two fifths as well (a diminished and an augmented fifth). This can all be quite confusing… So let’s try and see through the fog so that you know what to play when you get to those last four bars of the tune Footprints for example².

First, it is important to know that the altered chord’s parent mode, the altered mode, comes from the melodic minor scale (also called jazz minor). Play C melodic minor for instance (C melodic minor is equivalent to the C major scale with a minor third instead of a major third). Now play all the same notes as in C melodic minor, but starting and ending on the note B. This is the B altered mode (B C D Eb F G A B), mode VII of melodic minor (the altered chord is thus the VIIth degree of melodic minor). Now, let’s attribute scale degrees (notated using Arabic numerals accompanied by flats and sharps when necessary) to the notes of the B altered mode:

B 1 root
C b9 flat ninth
D #9 sharp ninth
Eb (= D#) 3 major third
F b5 / #11 diminished fifth or sharp eleventh
G #5 / b13 augmented fifth or flat thirteenth
A b7 minor seventh

If you look closely, you might notice that we seemingly have two different kinds of thirds in this mode: a minor third (D), and a major third (Eb or, spelled enharmonically, D#). Theoretically, D natural can also function as a #9 on a chord whose root is B. And since we cannot have two thirds in a given chordmode³, scale degrees 3 and #9 can logically be attributed to D# (Eb) and D respectively.

We have now identified three of our chord tones: the root (B), the major third (D#), and the minor seventh (A), which indeed outline a dominant seventh chord in skeletal form. It’s now time to add some flesh to those bare tones! Before moving on to tensions, we have to make a choice for our last chord tone: the fifth. We can either use a diminished fifth (the note F in our example) or an augmented fifth (G).

Altered arpeggio using b5 as a chord tone

If we decide that the b5 will function as the fifth of the altered chord for our purpose of arpeggiating it, we have the notes B, D#, F, and A in the lower part (chord tones) of the arpeggio. The remaining notes of the chordmode are C (b9), D (#9), and G (b13). They form the upper part (tensions) of the arpeggio. And we have:

B D# F A C D G D C A F D# B
1 3 b5 b7 b9 #9 b13 #9 b9 b7 b5 3 1

Notice that the tensions (C, D, and G) form a quartal triad that can be notated C2, D7sus(omit 5), or Gsus depending on its inversion. In this case, there is an absence of eleventh in the chordmode due to the presence of b5.

Altered arpeggio with b5 going through the circle of fifths

Altered arpeggio using #5 as a chord tone

If we decide that the #5 will function as the fifth of the altered chord for our purpose of arpeggiating it, we have the notes B, D#, G, and A in the lower part (chord tones) of the arpeggio. The remaining notes of the chordmode are C (b9), D (#9), and F (#11). They form the upper part (tensions) of the arpeggio. And we now have:

B D# G A C D F D C A G D# B
1 3 #5 b7 b9 #9 #11 #9 b9 b7 #5 3 1

The tensions (C, D, and F) do not form any specific tertial nor quartal triad here, and in this second scenario, there is an absence of thirteenth in the chordmode due to the presence of #5.

Altered arpeggio with #5 going through the circle of fifths

So there you have it: two different ways of arpeggiating altered chords in full (i.e. entire chordmodes with four chord tones and three tensions). Don’t forget to practice both examples a) and b) in all twelve keys! As always, I recommend following cycle five root motion, starting at different points in the cycle every time you pick up your instrument to practice (I’ve started with B7alt in the audio examples above since this is the chord we’ve been concerned with throughout the article).

Finally, to further illustrate my point, allow me to offer a recording of Footprints for your consideration, wherein I used seven-note voicings extensively in the keyboard part (stacked thirds for the most part and the altered voicings discussed above for E7alt and A7alt in the 10th measure of each chorus). The track features soloists Corey Wallace (trombone) and Philippe Lopes De Sa (soprano saxophone), as well as a rhythm section comprised of Akiko Horii (percussion), Hiroshi Fukutomi (electric guitar), and myself (keyboard and keyboard bass). Enjoy!

Notes

¹ These kinds of voicings are often referred to as “stacked thirds” (Levine 2014:3)

² The chords in this four bar progression are F#mi7(b5), F7(#11), E7alt, A7alt resolving to Cmi7. Listen to Wayne Shorter’s version on Adam’s Apple.

³ A chordmode is an indivisible entity that arises when a given chord sounds in unity with the scale from which it derives. “The complete sound of a chord is its corresponding mode within its parent scale.” (Russell 2001)

References

Levine, Mark. “Chapter One: The Menu.” In How to Voice Standards at the Piano: The Menu, 1-22. Petaluma: Sher Music Co., 2014.

Russell, George. “Part One: The Theoretical Foundation of the Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization.” In Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization – Volume One: The Art and Science of Tonal Gravity, 1-53. Brookline: Concept Publishing Company, 2001.

Shorter, Wayne. Adam’s Apple. Blue Note 7464032. 1987 (originally released in 1966).


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areas of study within jazz piano

The 6 areas of study within jazz piano.

“Feel, form, rhythm,” “arranging,” and “technique” are what I call the three foundational blocks of jazz piano playing. Without them, you won’t be able to build anything musically solid because your playing will always lack rootedness, depth, and precision. To improve in the area of “feel, form, and rhythm,” I recommend immersing yourself in some kind of West African musical tradition (Ewe drumming and dance, or djembe and dundun rhythms for example). “Arranging” is about mastering different textures and telling an engaging story. The piano has an inherent orchestral quality due to its wide range and polyphonic nature, so there is a lot to cover here, from bass lines, to chord voicings, all the way up to how to interpret and embellish a melody. As far as “technique” is concerned, some sub-areas are specific to jazz (such as a practicing a snippet of music in a variety of keys) and others more particular to classical performance. This is why I often encourage my students to work on Hanon’s Virtuoso Pianist, and the Bach Chorales¹ and Inventions at the very least (taking separate classical piano lessons altogether, in addition to the jazz piano lessons, being the ideal scenario).

These first three foundational blocks support those that make up the second level in the diagram. “Improvisation,” in my opinion, is the heartbeat of jazz. It’s at the very core of the music, which itself is all about individuation (or “finding your own voice“) if you ask me. At its left, you’ll notice that I represented “listening/transcribing” as an arrow pointing towards “improvisation.” That is because the jazz language you will be exposed to, and eventually internalize, will unavoidably feed into your personal style as an improviser². The elements of tradition and innovation constantly and dynamically coexist in jazz, very much like the yin and yang components of Taoist philosophy.

Finally, all five aforementioned blocks support the final block at the top of the diagram: “building a repertoire.” Now the good news is, this task should be relatively effortless if you’ve studied all the other areas conscientiously… This culminating block is all about having fun learning the tunes you like, or, why not, even writing, practicing, and performing your own!

Notes

¹ In “Back to Bach: Keys to Jazz Piano Prowess,” pianist Fred Hersch (2012) also recommends working on the Chorales, and offers a step by step approach to studying them involving pairs of two voices, then groups of three, and finally all four.

² See Wernick & O’Donnell (2010).

References

Hersch, Fred. “Back to Bach: Keys to Jazz Piano Prowess.” Downbeat: 76-77, September 2012.

“The Four-Part Chorales of J.S. Bach.” bach-chorales.com. <https://www.bach-chorales.com/> accessed 10 March 2021.

Wernick, Forrest and O’Donnell, Eric. “The Importance of Language.” Jazzadvice. 2010. <https://www.jazzadvice.com/the-importance-of-language/> accessed 10 March 2021.


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cycle 5 root motion: an application of the circle of fifths

As most of us musicians and music students know, the circle of fifths is notably helpful when figuring out what key a piece of music is in looking at its key signature. But it also has practical uses and can indeed be seen as the theoretical framework for what is commonly referred to as cycle 5 root motion. Cycle 5 root motion is often used as a way of traveling through all 12 pitches of the keyboard in order to work on anything, from a snippet of music to a whole tune, in all 12 keys. It also underpins the concept of the widely used II-V-I progression.

To go through the cycle, simply begin on any given note, go down a perfect fifth or up a perfect fourth (for a comprehensive review of intervals, click here) to reach the second note. Once there, repeat the process: go down a perfect fifth or up a perfect fourth and reach the third note. Repeat again, and again, and again… Until you are back at your starting point and have completed the cycle!

Cycle 5 root motion: the complete circle of fifths played in the left hand on the piano, starting and ending on the note C.

Oftentimes, you’ll see the circle of fifths starting and finishing on the pitch C (as in the example above). But you can of course begin and end at any point in the cycle. Actually, I recommend starting at different points in the cycle every time you practice something in all 12 keys: repeated transposition can indeed be quite challenging and mentally exhausting, and more than once have I stopped half or a third of the way through the cycle, and forgotten where I left off the next day… So beginning on different pitches every time makes it more likely that you will eventually get through the whole cycle, or at least that you’ll cover some of the more unfamiliar keys!

When you start and end on C, unfamiliar keys (such as Ab, Db, Gb/F#, B…) are located towards “the middle” of the cycle, whereas the more familiar ones (fewer flats or sharps) are on “the edges.” Beginning the cycle on say the pitch Ab is a way to ensure that you’ll venture through unfamiliar territory during practice!


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Tree of Light

◀️ Clicking on the image to the left will take you to a low resolution JPG file (1st page only). If you’d like to purchase complete sheet music (higher resolution PDF) for “Tree of Light,” please visit the Funnelljazz catalogue page.

“Tree of Light” has not yet officially been released as a single or on an album/EP. Enjoy the video below! 🔽

Tree of Light is one of the last compositions I completed in 2020 (hence the silver Christmas tree) and the very last one Akiko and I filmed and recorded from our apartment in Sunnyside (Queens, NY) before moving to Reykjavík (Iceland), where we are currently based. Two of the baddest cats originally hailing from the Seine-et-Marne French département, namely Dominique Muzeau and Thibault Perriard, joined us virtually in this transition, contributing amazing bass and drum parts from their homes in the Paris Region and lifting our spirits in the process. I’m sure they’ll lift yours too! Enjoy 🙂

Akiko Horii – conga
Thibault Perriard – drums

Dominique Muzeau – bass

Jim Funnell – piano & composition

Recorded in Paris and New York in November/December 2020.
Mixed by Dominique Muzeau in January 2021.
©2020 Funnelljazz (ASCAP, SACEM)

“Farewell, New York!” AfuriKo livestreams from Sunnyside, Queens

New York City has been good to Akiko and I. We’ve certainly lived through a lot over these past four years. And now it’s time to move on. This month, AfuriKo moved to Reykjavik, Iceland!

To say goodbye to America, kick off the year, and celebrate the beginning of this new chapter, we played two sets from our home in Sunnyside on January 2, 2021 at 3PM and 8PM EST. If you missed them, you can replay them on YouTube. Just click on the videos below!

Program (both sets):
🎵 In B Town (AfuriKo) – inspired by Bamaya, a traditional Dagomba rhythm from northern Ghana
🎵 Up in the Air (AfuriKo) – inspired by Agahu, a traditional Ewe rhythm from Ketonu in Benin
🎵 Bulgarian Traditional (unknown composer and title, arr. by AfuriKo)
🎵 Kotedjuga (AfuriKo)
🎵 Kassai (Ou Yoshida, Taiji Nakamura, arr. by AfuriKo) – solo section set to Kassa Soro, a traditional Malinke rhythm from Eastern Guinea

Two short pieces for cable and electric piano

“Two short pieces for cable and electric piano” are a couple of spontaneous improvisations wrapped around the buzzing sound of an audio cable. The piece is in two parts:

I. EMF Storm
II. Fugue and Postlude

While the piano parts are totally improvised, the cable parts were shaped using automation in Logic.

Jim Funnell – electric piano and sound editing

Recorded in New York, NY in October 2020.

new single: Igneous Alloy by AfuriKo feat. Corey Wallace & Alex B. Smith

Back in 2019 (May through November) and then again more recently in July and August of 2020, AfuriKo had the pleasure to invite both Corey A. Wallace (on trombone) and Alex Busby Smith (electric bass) as guest artists as part of our monthly residency at Tomi Jazz (a Japanese bar & grill in Midtown Manhattan that features nightly live jazz). The shows in both trio formats were a blast, and Igneous Alloy, a composition of mine first recorded on Spirit of the Snail (2015), was one of the tunes we played almost every time. So we decided to record a quartet version of it (this time with both Alex and Corey featured on the same track!) to document these good times and make a little something available to those of you who weren’t able to make it out to Tomi’s. The arrangement was refined to suit this particular instrumentation, including trombone melodies, synth counterlines, and a new bass line/riff to support Akiko’s percussion solo. Our friend Laure Lang from the Hauts-de-France region added her grain of salt with a magical mix and crafty video editing. Enjoy!

💽 Support us by getting your digital track on Bandcamp 🙂

Corey A. Wallace – trombone
Alex Busby Smith – electric bass
Akiko Horii – percussion
Jim Funnell – keyboards
Laure Lang – mixing, mastering, and video editing

Recorded in New York, NY in August and September 2020.
Mixed and mastered in Betz, FR in September 2020.

5-note 2-hand voicings: example of a minor II-V resolving to Ima7

The example above is a great exercise to practice some solid sounding 5-note voicings for a minor II-V (resolving to a Ima7 chord, just like in the second half of the bridge to All the Things You Are¹). So buckle up and get ready to take this whole thing through the cycle of fifths in all keys! You might well end up with a brand new, hip sounding chord or two in your toolbox. 🙂

The first chord, F#mi7(b5), is built using what Mark Levine (1989) calls the insen pentatonic (B C E F# A). You can construct it yourself (without looking at the sheet music) by first playing an E below middle C (as the b7 of the chord, that E respects standard low interval limits), then skipping the F#, playing the A, skipping the B, playing the C, and so forth (in other words, playing every other note in the insen pentatonic scale and sounding all the notes together with both hands). As you can see from the example above, I have notated all five inversions of that chord (first ascending, and then descending all the way back to the inversion chosen initially). I find it very beneficial to practice in that fashion in order to create a “sheet of sound” effect (like McCoy Tyner comping for John Coltrane!); having all five versions of the chord under your belt will also enable you to voice lead as smoothly as possible in any situation, taking into account where you’re coming from and where you’re going harmonically. Lastly, if the tune you’re playing calls for dwelling on a certain chord for a somewhat prolonged amount of time (a few bars), there lies a perfect opportunity for you to explore some of those inversions for the sake of variation…

The second chord is a B7 to which we have added a b9, a #9, and a b13. These tensions form a C2 triad (C D G) which when inverted gives us either two perfect fourths stacked on top of each other (D G C), or a Gsus triad (G C D)². Therefore we have an upper structure triad chord (UST) voiced with the aforementioned triad on top (played by the right hand) and the guide tones in the bottom (in the left hand). To be musically consistent with the phrasing used for F#mi7(b5), I have included several “inversions” here too (to be precise: inversions of the top triad in the right hand, and inversions of the guide tones in the left).

The final chord to which this progression resolves is an Ema7 chord (with thensions 9 and 13). The building process here is the exact same as for F#mi7(b5) (with the playing and skipping of every other tone in the scale), except that this time, a “regular”³ anhemitonic (containing no semitones) pentatonic is used (B C# D# F# G#). Notice how each individual voice outlines the pentatonic scale melodically… Neat, huh? I sure like it! (the same thing goes for the insen pentatonic we talked about above).

And there you have it: three solid sounding, 2-hand voicings for your minor II-V resolving to a major I chord. I hope you’ll enjoy practicing this snippet and that it will prove to be a valuable addition to your harmonic vocabulary!

Notes

¹ Click here for a transcription (example #2) of guitarist Remo Palmieri soloing over the bridge of All the Things You Are (Gillespie 1993).

² Click here to see these quartal triads (2 and suspended) in root position and their inversions notated in treble clef.

³ In order to differentiate this particular pentatonic scale from other kinds of 5-note scales (such as the insen pentatonic mentioned earlier), I usually refer to it as “global.” After all, it “has been found in use upon every single continent of the planet Earth.” (Hewitt 2013)

References

Gillespie, Dizzy. Groovin’ High. Savoy 152. 1993 (originally released in 1955).

Hewitt, Michael. “Section 5: Pentatonic Scales.” In Musical Scales of the World, 125-134. The Note Tree, 2013.

Levine, Mark. “Chapter 15: Pentatonic Scales.” In The Jazz Piano Book, 219-237. Petaluma: Sher Music Company, 1989.


Visit https://funnelljazz.eu/lessons/ for detailed information about lessons or click on the image below to book your lesson today:
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Echoes of Cyan

◀️ Clicking on the image to the left will take you to a low resolution JPG file (1st page only). If you’d like to purchase complete sheet music (higher resolution PDF) for “Echoes of Cyan,” please visit the Funnelljazz catalogue page.

“Echoes of Cyan” has not yet officially been released as a single or on an album/EP. Please enjoy the video below! 🔽

Echoes of Cyan is kind of a tribute to the tune Blue in Green by Bill Evans (or Miles Davis?). The 15 bar form for this new composition is somewhat unusual, echoing Blue in Green’s 10 bars, and the (mostly) descending stepwise melody reminiscent of the famous ballad on Kind of Blue (1959).

Franck Vaillant – drums
Takashi Sugawa – bass

Jim Funnell – piano & composition

Recorded in Tokyo, Paris, and New York in July 2020.
©2020 Jim Funnell (ASCAP, SACEM)